According to recent tests from the telangana State pollution Control Board (TSPCB), there has been a worrying drop in the water quality of the city's Hussain Sagar Lake. These data show a consistent degradation of crucial indicators that indicate the quality of the water.
The TSPCB has disclosed data indicating a persistent decline in critical indicators in the water quality at Necklace Road, one of the lake's most prominent places, during the year 2023. Permissible limits have been exceeded for total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and total coliform bacteria (TCB).

Even while the lake water's pH levels are still rather steady, ranging between 6.63 and 7.63, other signs show a dire situation. High levels of electrical conductivity (EC) have been continuously observed, indicating a plentiful supply of dissolved salts and minerals.
Throughout the monitoring period, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels—which are essential for maintaining aquatic life—have remained low and below the suggested criteria.
The startling increase in coliform bacteria overall, particularly fecal coliform, that is beyond permissible limits and suggests possible fecal contamination and the presence of pathogens is especially concerning.

As opposed to Necklace Road, data from monitoring the lake halfway, close to the buddha monument, shows a little better scenario in a few areas. The ec values indicated different concentrations of dissolved salts and minerals, whereas pH levels varied between 6.26 and 8.02, suggesting some heterogeneity in the acidity or alkalinity of the water.
Even though DO levels varied, they usually stayed between 3.0 and 4.8 mg/L, which is thought to be sufficient for maintaining aquatic life. The amounts of BOD and COD, on the other hand, varied, suggesting different levels of inorganic and organic contamination. The levels of fecal and total coliform bacteria are occasionally above acceptable limits, even with considerable improvements.
 Telangana State pollution Control Board senior social scientist WG prasanna Kumar commented on the state of affairs, highlighting the effect of freshwater inputs, especially rainfall, on the lake's water quality. He pointed out how seasonal changes, such as lower water levels and more evaporation in the summer, might cause increases in pollution concentrations.
Kumar emphasized the enormous advancements in sewage treatment that have been achieved in the Hussain Sagar area throughout time, with treatment facilities being essential to raising the standard of the surrounding water.

He did, however, emphasize that to significantly improve water quality and guarantee long-term gains in the future, problems like leaking from sources like Banjara Nala must be addressed.
"Hussain Sagar Lake's water quality is greatly impacted by the intensity of rain or fresh water," Kumar said. Hussain Sagar now receives exclusively treated water, pretty much. Hussain Sagar's water, however, would only be treated water if Banjara Nala's leaks could be halted.
He also said that over a decade, water quality has improved, and he attributed this development to the sequential construction of treatment facilities.

Reasons for deteriorating water quality
• Consistent deterioration of Hussain Sagar's water quality
• Exceeding allowable limits for total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and biological oxygen demand (BOD)
• Norms of fecal matter and coliform bacteria were higher than acceptable norms.
• The amount of dissolved oxygen, which is necessary to sustain aquatic life, was insufficient.
• There is still leakage from Banjara Nala to Hussain Sagar.
• Rainfall-induced freshwater inflow is essential for maintaining Hussain Sagar's water quality.

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