The vulva and vagina are essential components of the female reproductive anatomy, distinguished by their roles and locations within the body. Understanding these distinctions is vital for grasping the complexities of female sexual and reproductive health.

The vulva comprises the external genitalia of the female reproductive system, encompassing various components like the mons pubis (a fatty tissue layer over the pubic bone), the labia majora (outer "lips"), the labia minora (inner "lips"), the clitoris (a sensitive organ crucial for sexual pleasure), the urethral opening (for urine passage), and the vaginal opening.

Its multifaceted functions include safeguarding the internal reproductive organs, enhancing sexual pleasure, and participating in the childbirth process. Conversely, the vagina is an internal muscular canal extending from the vulva to the cervix of the uterus. Often referred to as the "birth canal," it facilitates childbirth by allowing the passage of a baby from the uterus to the external environment.

 Additionally, the vagina serves as the conduit for menstrual blood during menstruation and plays a pivotal role in sexual intercourse, accommodating the penis during heterosexual intercourse or other objects during sexual activities. In summary, the vulva constitutes the external, visible portion of female genitalia, encompassing all structures situated outside the body, while the vagina is the internal canal linking the vulva to the cervix and uterus. 

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